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Splien The spleen sits in the upper left abdomen just below the diaphragm VideoSpleen - Structure \u0026 Function
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Studies have shown that upon severe tissue injury, such as that sustained during a heart attack , the spleen releases a legion of monocytes, which then travel through the bloodstream to the site of injury.
There they serve to regulate inflammation and to facilitate tissue healing. In animals who have had their spleens removed, the monocyte response is not observed at the site of tissue injury, and healing is less thorough.
In addition, humans who have had their spleens removed a procedure known as a splenectomy appear to be at increased risk of infections and, as they age, cardiovascular disease and possibly even certain types of cancer.
It is suspected that the absence of immune-regulating factors released from the spleen is related to the increase in susceptibility to such diseases in individuals who have undergone a splenectomy.
The red pulp has a specialized role in addition to filtration. Degenerate red cells are removed from the circulation in the spleen, and the hemoglobin that they contain is degraded to a readily excretable pigment and an iron molecule that is recycled i.
While relatively rare, there are several prominent anatomical variations of the spleen. However, medical supplementation is often needed in such cases.
One major function is that this organ filters blood, removing foreign bodies, microbes, and faulty red blood cells RBCs in its red pulp. This it does by filtering such bodies to specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes located in the lymph nodules.
In its white pulp, the spleen produces white blood cells WBCs , and synthesizes antibodies, making it essential to immune function.
In particular, this tissue is the site of lymphocyte production white blood cells that are deeply involved in immune function that make up the antibodies.
As noted above, while the spleen is not a completely essential organ, it can be implicated in a number of health issues, with some disorders or diseases becoming life-threatening.
Oftentimes, splenectomy—the removal of the spleen—is required as treatment for these conditions, though sometimes more conservative measures can work.
Enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen. New York, N. National Library of Medicine. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Enlarged spleen. Computed tomography CT — Abdomen and pelvis. Recovering from spleen surgery It's normal to feel sore and be bruised after a splenectomy, but you'll be given pain relief.
You should be able to eat and drink as normal soon after the operation. Your doctor will talk through these risks with you. Living without a spleen If your spleen needs to be removed, other organs, such as the liver, can take over many of the spleen's functions.
Young children have a higher risk of serious infection than adults, but the risk is still small. This risk can be minimised by following simple precautions to prevent infection.
Vaccinations Check with your GP surgery that you have had all your routine childhood vaccinations. Signs of infection include: a high temperature a sore throat a cough a severe headache a headache with drowsiness or a rash abdominal pain redness and swelling around the surgical wound Your GP can prescribe a course of antibiotics for you to use if you get an infection.
If your infection becomes serious, you may be admitted to hospital. Beware of animal and tick bites Bites from animals and small blood-sucking parasites called ticks can cause infections.
Higher-grade lacerations or ruptures may require surgery to repair the spleen, surgery to remove part of the spleen, or surgery to remove the spleen completely.
Humans can live without their spleen, but those without one may be more susceptible to infection. More on that, below.
An enlarged spleen, also called a splenomegaly, is a serious but typically treatable condition. According to the Mayo Clinic , anyone can get an enlarged spleen, but children suffering from mononucleosis, adults with certain inherited metabolic disorders including Gaucher's and Neimann-Pick disease, and people who live or travel to malaria-endemic areas are more at risk.
Knowlton listed infection, liver diseases, cancer, and blood diseases as typical causes for enlarged spleens.
According to the Mayo Clinic , specific infections and diseases include:. In many cases, there are no symptoms associated with an enlarged spleen, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center.
Despite this, if it is removed, a person can carry on without it. Blood is a mixture of plasma and cells.
As it circulates throughout the body, blood transports substances essential to life, such as sugars, oxygen…. The spleen is an abdominal organ that plays a vital role in fighting infection and filtering blood.
A traumatic injury can cause it to rupture, which…. The immune system defends our body against invaders, such as viruses, bacteria, and foreign bodies.
The white blood cells are a key component. A low platelet count is a blood disorder that can sometimes be serious.
This article looks at platelets and their role within the body. Find out about…. By the gods You shall digest the venom of your spleen, Though it do split you; for, from this day forth, I'll use you for my mirth, yea, for my laughter, When you are waspish.
It has been popularized by the poet Charles Baudelaire — but was already used before in particular to the Romantic literature 19th century.
The French word for the organ is " rate ". The connection between spleen the organ and melancholy the temperament comes from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks.
One of the humours body fluid was the black bile , secreted by the spleen organ and associated with melancholy. In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century England, women in bad humor were said to be afflicted by the spleen, or the vapours of the spleen.
In modern English, "to vent one's spleen" means to vent one's anger , e. Similarly, the English term " splenetic " describes a person in a foul mood.
In contrast, the Talmud tractate Berachoth 61b refers to the spleen as the organ of laughter while possibly suggesting a link with the humoral view of the organ.
Sanhedrin 21b and Avodah Zarah 44a and Rashi ibid. The spleen also plays an important role in traditional Chinese medicine and is the Yin part of the Earth element paired with its Yang counterpart the Stomach.
In German "einen Spleen haben" means to be quirky or eccentric, to have a strange but usually not harmful habit. In German the meaning of "spleen" changed in the mid 19th century from "being melancholic" to "being eccentric".
In cartilaginous and ray-finned fish , it consists primarily of red pulp and is normally somewhat elongated, as it lies inside the serosal lining of the intestine.
In many amphibians , especially frogs , it has the more rounded form and there is often a greater quantity of white pulp. A study published in using mice found that the red pulp of the spleen forms a reservoir that contains over half of the body's monocytes.
In reptiles , birds, and mammals , white pulp is always relatively plentiful, and in birds and mammals the spleen is typically rounded, but it adjusts its shape somewhat to the arrangement of the surrounding organs.
In most vertebrates, the spleen continues to produce red blood cells throughout life; only in mammals this function is lost in middle-aged adults.
Many mammals have tiny spleen-like structures known as haemal nodes throughout the body that are presumed to have the same function as the spleen.
In cetaceans and manatees they tend to be quite small, but in deep diving pinnipeds , they can be massive, due to their function of storing red blood cells.
The only vertebrates lacking a spleen are the lampreys and hagfishes the Cyclostomata. Even in these animals, there is a diffuse layer of haematopoeitic tissue within the gut wall, which has a similar structure to red pulp and is presumed homologous with the spleen of higher vertebrates.